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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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46
ALASKAN GLACIER STUDIES
country" with "loose unconnected stones" and ice beneath cracks in the gravelly soil observed by Vancouver and the Russians, with trees growing in it where the crevassed Guyot Glacier is now unencumbered, with the shore-line east of the Yahtse River shown on the 1788-1807 chart markedly different from that of Russell in 1891, and with the deep re-entrant of the Icy Bay of Vancouver, Belcher, and Tebenkof. Subsequently there may have been an advance of Malaspina Glacier front, notably altering the conditions. This advance would probably be shortly after 1837, as the surface was not apparently much crevassed when seen by Dall and Baker in 1880, by Schwatka in 1886, and Topham in 1888, and trees had grown to good size before Russell's visit in 1891. Russell neither mentions nor shows photographs of any trees on the west or central part
FIG. 1.   TEBHNKOBI'B CHAET SHOWING ICY BAT, lor CAEE AND THE SITE OF THH PBBSBNT MALASHNA GLAOBBB.
of Malaspina Glacier old enough to disprove this interpretation. Davidson suggests that Malaspina Glacier has crowded its way seaward obliterating the old Icy Bay.1
The most specific evidence in connection with this interpretation, with which we agree, and not discussed by Davidson, is found in a map, and a native legend. Among the maps showing Icy Bay, we refer to that from Tebenkof's Atlas (reproduced here as Fig. 1). The native legend is one quoted in Topham.
The map shows a very definite Icy Bay five miles wide at the mouth, extending northward six to eight miles and apparently about on the site of the present Yahtse River. Within it are soundings of 5, 12 and 15 fathoms where only a delta existed at the time of Schwatka's, Topham's, and Russell's visits in 1886, 1888, and 1891, as their maps show. Tebenkof's chart also shows a pronounced cape just east of Icy Bay, Shoal Point ~tthe Pt. Riou of Vancouver), behind which is a good sized lake or lagoon, Shoal Bay,
i Op. cit., p. 45.